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防疫貢獻!科源股份參編標準獲世界綠色建筑協

發稿時間:2020-03-27來源: 【 字體:
      3月23日,世界綠色建筑協會(World Green Building Council)發文刊登中國綠色建筑在應對新型冠狀病毒肺炎(COVID-19)的貢獻,文章指出綠色建筑是中國建筑科技發展過程中的重要里程碑,肯定了中國建研院牽頭主編、科源股份參編的《綠色建筑評價標準》GB/T 50378-2019在疫情防控中的積極作用。

原文如下
The contribution of green buildings in the fight against COVID-19

An analysis by China Green Building Council

      December 2019 saw an outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) which has now spread widely around the world.
      Prevention and control are key elements when facing major public health emergencies. To contain the epidemic, the areas for residents' activities are restricted to communities and remaining indoors. Therefore, as a gathering base for most people, buildings now play a significant role in preventing and controlling the COVID-19 virus. Community and building-based prevention and control measures have become one of the most important methods of fighting against the epidemic. These include self-isolation, community management, elevator disinfection, environmental cleaning, open windows for natural ventilation, etc.
      Green building is a milestone in the building technology development process in China. The latest national standard of China for green building assessment is Assessment Standard for Green Building (GB/T 50378-2019) (hereinafter referred to as ASGB), which was issued in March 2019. ASGB adheres to the technical route of people-oriented, performance-based and quality-improved, while aiming at implementing the concept of green development and expanding the connotation of green buildings. GB/T 50378-2019 absorbs new technologies and new concepts in the development of building technology and takes into account the safety, durability, health, liveability and accessibility for occupants of all ages.
The criteria for green buildings, as outlined in ASGB certification, are beneficial to the COVID-19 prevention and control. The positive effects of green buildings in the COVID-19 prevention and control can be summarised into five pillars:
1. Providing the basic functions for epidemic prevention and control
      The requirements of ASGB that contribute to COVID-19 prevention and control: for the occupants, include natural ventilation, indoor disinfection and cleaning and avoiding gathering; for property management, include waste management, information publicity, information management, air quality and water quality monitoring, stable operation of building equipment and skills in responding to the epidemic.
 
2. Providing convenience and facilities for epidemic prevention and control
      Providing convenience and facilities for epidemic prevention and control are the basic guarantee for the orderly progress in epidemic prevention and control. The requirements include: enable buildings occupants and site workers to provide quick access to medical equipment and facilities; effective personnel and vehicle control; providing conditions to add relevant signs to alert people; changing the room function when necessary (medical rooms, transitional residential rooms, isolation and observation rooms, supplies storage rooms, etc.)
 
3. Reducing the risk of infection and preventing cross infection
      In addition to providing the basic functions and convenient conditions for epidemic prevention and control, the building itself should also “isolate” the virus as much as possible to reduce the risk of infection. The requirements of ASGB in this regard include: controlling the collusion of air and pollutants; controlling the exhaust backflow of kitchens and bathrooms; setting up effective water seals to reduce the risk of virus transmission through drainage pipes and stools; controlling the concentration of indoor particulate matter; optimising the building space and plane layout to enhance the effectiveness of natural ventilation; controlling air conditioning system by zones; well-designed site wind environment for dissipation of viruses and harmful gases.
 
4. Promoting and protecting the health of occupants
      Currently there is no specific antiviral drug against the novel coronavirus. COVID-19 is actually a self-limiting disease, which mainly depends on the body's immunity. ASGB regulates water quality, air quality, fitness and antibacterial function building materials to promote occupant’s health in order to reduce the risk of getting disease and enhance the ability of resisting viruses. The requirements in this area include: the concentration of indoor air pollutants such as ammonia, formaldehyde, benzene, total volatile organic compounds, radon, PM2.5 and PM10 shall be controlled; moisture condensation shall not appear on the inner surface to avoid the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as mould; smoking shall be prohibited in the building; water safety should be ensured; setting sports and fitness venues to promote physical movement; using green building material with antibacterial function.
 
5. Stabilize work and living environment during the epidemic prevention and control
      During the period of the epidemic, maintaining a stable work and living environment is essential for prevention and control. The requirements of ASGB in this area include: ensure occupants' health from water quality; providing convenient public service facilities (supermarkets, vegetable markets, hospitals and other public service facilities).
 
      When facing COVID-19, ASGB plays an active role in providing a basic guarantee and convenient conditions for COVID-19 prevention and control which is beneficial to the victory against COVID-19.
With the development of building technologies in China, buildings start to emphasise their health performance. Assessment Standard for Healthy Building (T/ASC02-2016) was issued in 2016 which specifically focuses on the health performance of building. It is thought that as a result of COVID-19 more attention should be paid to the health performance of buildings, in order to make a greater contribution to the response to major public health emergencies in the future.
 
      文中歸納《綠色建筑評價標準》GB/T 50378-2019指導綠色建筑實踐,從五方面促進新冠肺炎的防控:具備疫情防控的基礎功能;提供疫情防控工作開展的便利條件;助于降低感染風險和預防交叉感染;促進和保障建筑使用者身體健康;穩定疫情防控期間生產生活環境。

譯文如下
      2019年12月,新型冠狀病毒肺炎(COVID-19)爆發,并在世界范圍廣泛傳播。
      面對突發重大公共衛生事件時,疫情防控是關鍵環節。為了遏制疫情擴散,居民活動范圍大多集中在社區和建筑內。因此,作為人員“聚集”最多的場所,建筑在COVID-19的防控中尤為重要。基于社區和建筑的防控措施成為抗擊疫情的重要保障條件之一。這些措施包括居家觀察、社區管理、電梯消毒、環境清潔、自然通風等。 
      綠色建筑是中國建筑技術發展過程中的重要里程碑。國家標準《綠色建筑評價標準》(GB / T 50378-2019)(以下簡稱《標準》)于2019年3月發布。《標準》秉承“以人為本,強調性能,提高質量”的技術路線,貫徹綠色發展理念,拓展綠色建筑內涵,吸收建筑科技發展的新技術和新理念,并考慮了建筑的安全、耐久、健康、宜居、全齡友好等內容。 
《標準》在COVID-19的防控中具有積極的促進作用,可歸納為五個方面: 
1.具備疫情防控的基礎功能 
      《標準》利于COVID-19防控的相關要求有:對于建筑使用者,相關措施有建筑通風、室內清潔與消毒、避免聚集等;在物業管理方面,相關措施有垃圾管理、信息發布、信息管理、空氣質量和水質監測、建筑設備的穩定運行以及應對疫情的能力。 
2. 提供疫情防控工作開展的便利條件 
      提供便利條件是疫情防控工作有序開展的基礎保障。要求包括:建筑及建筑場地為疫情防控提供醫療設備設施的快速接入;人員與車輛有效管控;具有新增相關標識的條件;建筑房間在必要時進行功能轉換(醫療用房、過渡性居住用房、隔離觀察用房、物資儲備用房等)。
3. 具有降低感染風險和預防交叉感染的作用
      除了為疫情防控提供所需的基礎功能和便利條件外,建筑本身還應最大程度的“隔絕”致病病毒,降低建筑使用者感染風險。《標準》在這方面的要求包括:控制空氣和污染物的串通;控制廚房、衛生間的排氣倒灌;設置有效的水封,降低病毒通過排水管道和糞便傳播的風險;控制室內顆粒物的濃度;優化建筑空間和平面布局,以強化自然通風效果;空調系統分區控制;營造良好的場地風環境,利于病毒和有害氣體擴散。
4. 促進和保障建筑使用者身體健康
      目前,尚缺乏針對新型冠狀病毒的特效抗病毒藥物。COVID-19實際上是一種自限性疾病,主要依賴機體免疫力與疾病抗衡。《標準》在水質、空氣品質、健身、抑菌功能建材等促進身體健康方面進行規定,以降低建筑使用者患病風險,提高抵抗病毒的能力。相關要求包括:控制室內空氣污染物(如氨、甲醛、苯、總揮發性有機物、氡、PM2.5、PM10等)的濃度;建筑內表面不得結露,以避免霉菌等致病細菌的滋生;建筑內嚴禁吸煙;確保用水安全;設置運動和健身場地以促進運動;使用具有抗菌功能的綠色建材。
5. 穩定疫情防控期間生產生活環境 
      疫情防控期間,維護穩定的生產、生活環境對于疫情防控工作開展至關重要。《標準》在這方面的要求包括:在用水水質方面保障人們身體健康;提供便利的公共服務設施(超市、蔬菜市場、醫院和其他公共服務設施等)。面對COVID-19疫情,《標準》可以提供積極的疫情防控條件,對抗擊COVID-19取得最終勝利起到積極作用。
隨著中國建筑科技的發展,建筑開始強調健康屬性。《健康建筑評價標準》(T/ASC02-2016)是專門關注建筑健康性能的標準。COVID-19疫情之后,應更加注重建筑的健康性能,以在未來應對重大公共衛生事件中發揮更大的貢獻。

      科源股份憑借雄厚的專業技術和人才團隊優勢,近年來共參與了30余項國家、地方以及行業標準和規范的編制工作,今后將持續開展相關建筑技術研究、標準編制等工作,助力行業發展,以在未來應對重大公共衛生事件中發揮更大的貢獻。


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